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How to Fire a Clay Without a Kiln- The Exact Process

Are you searching for the methods of how to fire a clay without a kiln at home? Don’t worry; you are at the right place because we’ll discuss all the essential aspects of firing without a kiln in detail here. So, stick around if you don’t have a kiln but are eager for firing clay.

Making pottery at home is becoming an interesting hobby for many kids and even adults nowadays. Some people who enjoy firing pottery turn this hobby into their regular business. Children enjoy doing small pottery projects at home on their vacations or weekends.

It is also a creative way of making superb gifts for your family members and friends to show your deep affection for them. But some people step back from this hobby because they think they can’t fire pottery without a kiln, which is not true. You can opt for this remarkable hobby and profession even when no kiln is around.

But it is crucial to know all the dos and don’ts of firing clay to get outstanding results. You can fire clay through three processes when having no kiln at home. We are discussing these methods below and telling you which one is best of all. Let’s look at these methods and other issues related to firing clay without a kiln.

How to Fire Clay Without a Kiln Methods

If you want to fire clay without a kiln, there are three popular methods by which you can pick the one that seems easier to execute. The best way to fire the pottery depends upon the clay type and the pottery-making procedure you are opting.

When trying for the first time, do your research first and then jump into the field of pottery making. Because even a slight mistake can spoil your entire effort. Below are the three methods of firing pottery without a kiln; let’s explore them one by one.

1. Raku Firing – The Incredible Japanese Technique of Firing Clay without kiln

Raku Firing
Raku Firing

Raku firing is not a modern pottery-making procedure but an incredible Japanese technique used since the 16th century. It is one of the clay firing methods you can use to make pottery without a kiln, but it is a time-consuming and complicated process. But it is the best option for firing clay as it gives the freedom of applying any food-safe glaze to create impressive pieces.

Procedure of Raku Firing

The first step is to create the bisque fire, the standard term used for the first firing procedure, followed by glazing. Mostly a barrel is used in Raku firing to keep the wares. The barrel has some openings which give the potter access to his wares when the fire is on. Some people remove the top lid fully to keep the pottery.

Bring the barrel near the fire, place the pottery in it, and then turn on the fire. Keep the pottery in the barrel for a longer duration because it is not a quick process. In actuality, it is a very slow procedure that requires a lot of patience. The fire is kept slow in the beginning and then boosted up later. The fire should be around 1400-18000 °F. The barrel is much like a kiln in its functioning.

When the pottery turns red hot, remove it using safety gloves and tongs from the barrel. Then put them right away in the sawdust or cool water for cooling. When your wares are fully cool, remove the carbon with the help of a cleaner. It is an optional step but adds more shine to the pottery. Then, keep the pottery aside for a few hours to let it dry thoroughly and get ready to be decorated.

Things to Consider in Raku Firing

Here are a few things you must bear in mind when preferring Raku Firing, among other procedures. You need a huge place for Raku firing because of the barrel’s huge size. Never try this process in enclosed or poorly ventilated rooms. Always make the Raku fire in the backyard or open-air places. Keep the flammable things, animals, and your kids away from it.

This process is not ideal for children or people who can’t make the fire carefully for long hours. Raku firing is ideal for designing unique patterns by adding sawdust, seaweed, animal dung, and woodchips. But you can’t expect the same design every time.

Due to high temperatures and toxic fumes, Raku is a very dangerous technique and not desirable for young kids.

2. Pit Firing or Smoke Firing – The Natural Way of Baking

Pit Firing or Smoke Firing
Pit Firing or Smoke Firing

Pit firing is the other method for firing clay without a kiln. This process is also called smoke firing, a natural way to bake pottery. The advantage of using this process is that its unglazed natural look seems attractive, but if you want to glaze it, you can.

Procedure of Pit/Smoke Firing

Pit firing is similar to Raku firing, where you create fire in the pit, but there is no barrel. First, dig a hole to keep the pottery. The size of your pit depends on the number of wares you want to fire. You can use papers, coal, and wood chips as fuel for burning the fire.

Fire the pit and let the temperatures rise high up to 1800 to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep the clay in the pit for 12 to 24 hours. You have two options regarding glazing the pottery. You can glaze the pottery after taking it out from the pit, then give it another fire. Or, fire the pottery after glazing it.

Once the pottery becomes hard and ready to remove, use tongs for taking the wares out of the pit. Keep the pottery aside for drying out naturally. Or, leave the pottery inside the pit till the fire fully burns out.

Things To Consider in Pit Firing

If you select Pit firing to fire the clay, remember that it doesn’t achieve consistent heat. The pottery may be fragile or have uneven glazing compared to made through other methods.
Make sure there are no combustibles around when you are applying Pit firing. Always choose an open area for this process. The place should be safe, hot, and away from heavy winds.

3- Kitchen Oven Clay Baking

Kitchen Oven Clay Baking Method
Kitchen Oven Clay Baking Method

The third method is to use the kitchen oven to create outstanding pottery pieces. But this method is only suitable for making decorative pieces. It quickly dries out the pottery; that’s why it is considered an alternative to a kiln.

The kitchen oven comes with some downsides. One of the biggest disadvantages is the low temperature of the kitchen oven, which is not suitable for glazing. Moreover, you can use an oven for only a few types of clay, which means it limits the potter from using it freely for every sort of pottery clay.

As far as home clay is concerned, the kitchen oven is a perfect option for it. If using the salt dough, that would be a right decision to color it before placing it in the oven. The oven temperature is too low to hold the glaze, so never glaze the pottery before firing.

Procedure of Kitchen Oven

Most potters use the kitchen oven for those pottery projects that require low temperatures. Set the temperature at 250 degrees F, keep your pottery inside and let it be there for an hour. If the clay is thicker, it may take 3 hours to dry fully. Be careful about the temperature because if the pottery becomes too hard, it may crack.

Factors Associated with Firing Clay Without a Kiln

Here in this section, we’ll discuss various aspects of firing clay without a kiln.

How to Sculpt Clay Without a Kiln

Having no kiln at home is not a big issue, so don’t stop yourself from making sculptures. The high-temperature oven can help you in this matter. Polymer clay is the best clay for sculpting at home, which gets hard quickly and requires only 130°C temperature for that purpose. As it doesn’t need up to 2000°C temperature, you can bake it in your oven without any issue.

Safety Precautions About Firing the Pottery

Whenever you aim to fire clay without a kiln, first learn about the local fire codes and safety measures. Certain communities and cities are too restricted about open fires. So, if your fire can create any problem, just leave this desire.

When firing the clay, do it near the water supply source or keep dirt and shovel to put out the fire that burns accidentally. However, firing clay is a long procedure but be around the fire to keep an eye on it. Don’t let your kids or pets roam around the firing area.


The beginners finding answers to their question of how to fire clay without a kiln might be facing some other issues also. These issues may include breakage of their pottery even after carefully following all the procedures. But it happens at the beginning with every new potter, so there is no need to worry.

For controlling the breakage issue, keenly observe the steam pressure because it leads to breaking the pots. If the wares are not made uniformly, the varied thickness can cause cracking. Along with thickness, the other reason for the breakage is the lack of an opener in the clay.

The opener, like grog or sand, lets the moisture escape conveniently in the early stages. But be cautious; sand should not contain limestone. Limestone also pops off the pottery because it absorbs the moisture and expands.

The oven is good for low-temperature uses when it comes to pottery creation. If not using a kiln for firing clay, you can keep the pots in an oven at 190 degrees F. Keep clay pieces in the oven for various hours; they will pre-dry and become ready for the next step of outdoor firing. This step prevents breakage associated with steam explosions.

Stages of Clay

Clay is an interesting yet frustrating substance to work with. The first stage is “Slip” where water and clay are mixed. Then the next stage is “Wet clay,” which is used to make different art pieces and pottery. When the clay dries a bit, it is the third stage named “Leather-hard.”

At this stage, add straight clay slabs for creating 3D structures. The “Dry clay” is the fourth stage where your pottery is fragile and will become hard in the next stage, “Bisque.” “The Glaze ware” is the final stage where the clay pieces have created a non-porous surface.

Every stage gives you the chance to correct your mistakes and fix the issues, so carefully handle your pottery at all the stages to get a perfect finished product.

Why Firing the Clay is Essential?

Someone may wonder, “Why is it necessary to fire the clay to create pottery?” The reason is that when the clay is burnt at around 1000 degrees F, it hardens into pottery. Heat evaporates the water from the clay, transforming the clay molecules into hard molecules that cannot be dissolved in water.

Other varieties of clay, other than air-dried clays, shatter extremely readily if not burned. When these items become wet, they absorb the water, and if they continue to absorb the water, they eventually collapse.

Final Thought

This is an article on firing a Clay. Beginning with a brief introduction to clay firing, I have thoroughly described all of the fundamental features and ways of firing clay without a kiln. I thoroughly examined all three ways.

Furthermore, after reading this post, you will understand why heating clay is necessary, as well as how to sculpt clay without a kiln. Along with fire pottery safety procedures, you will be able to understand Clay phases and solve any challenges for new ones.

Using these numerous approaches practically with thorough descriptions and telling all the main qualities may assist you in choosing one. To produce better outcomes, I found the kitchen oven approach to be simple to use. Because it quickly dries out the pottery, it is considered an alternative to kiln firing. Thanks for reading on this blog.

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Jennie Deckow

Jennie Deckow is a renowned Professional in making Pottery and Ceramics. She has Followed her Childhood passion for making Potteries. Nowadays, she is a creative part of the potterycrafthub Team.

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